A wrinkle, also known as a rhytide, is a fold, ridge or crease in the skin or on fabric. Skin wrinkles typically appear as
a result of aging processes such as glycation, habitual sleeping positions, loss of body mass, or temporarily, as the result of prolonged immersion in water. Age wrinkling in the skin is promoted by habitual facial expressions, aging, sun damage, smoking, poor hydration, and various other factors.
Development of facial wrinkles is a kind of fibrosis of the skin. Misrepair-accumulation aging theory suggests that wrinkles develop from incorrect repairs of injured elastic fibers and collagen fibers. Repeated extensions and compressions of the skin cause repeated injuries of extracellular fibers in derma. During the repairing process, some of the broken elastic fibers and collagen fibers are not regenerated and restored but replaced by altered fibers. When an elastic fiber is broken in an extended state, it may be replaced by a “long” collagen fiber. Accumulation of “long” collagen fibers makes part of the skin looser and stiffer, and as a consequence, a big fold of skin appears. When a “long” collagen is broken in a compressed state, it may be replaced by a “short” collagen fiber. The “shorter” collagen fibers will restrict the extension of “longer” fibers, and make the “long” fibers in a folding state permanently. A small fold, namely a permanent wrinkle, then appears.
Treatments for aging wrinkles
A man receiving a botox injection Current evidence suggests that tretinoin decreases cohesiveness of follicular epithelial cells, although the exact mode of action is unknown. Additionally, tretinoin stimulates mitotic activity and increased turnover of follicular epithelial cells.Tretinoin is better known by the brand name Retin-A.
Topical glycosaminoglycans supplements can help to provide temporary restoration of enzyme balance to slow or prevent matrix breakdown and consequent onset of wrinkle formation. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are produced by the body to maintain structural integrity in tissues and to maintain fluid balance. Hyaluronic acid is a type of GAG that promotes collagen synthesis, repair, and hydration. GAGs serve as a natural moisturizer and lubricant between epidermal cells to inhibit the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
Dermal fillers are injectable products frequently used to correct wrinkles, and other depressions in the skin. They are often a kind of soft tissue designed to enable injection into the skin for purposes of improving the appearance. The most common products are based on hyaluronic acid and calcium hydroxylapatite.
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botox is a specific form of botulinum toxin manufactured by Allergan for both therapeutic and cosmetic use. Besides its cosmetic application, Botox is used in the treatment of other conditions including migraine headache and cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis) (a neuromuscular disorder involving the head and neck).
Dysport, manufactured by Ipsen, received FDA approval and is now used to treat cervical dystonia as well as glabellar lines in adults. In 2010, another form of botulinum toxin, one free of complexing proteins, became available to Americans. Xeomin received FDA approval for medical indications in 2010 and cosmetic indications in 2011.
Botulinum toxin treats wrinkles by immobilizing the muscles which cause wrinkles. It is not appropriate for the treatment of all wrinkles; it is indicated for the treatment of glabellar lines (between the eyebrows) in adults. Any other usage is not approved by the FDA and is considered off-label use.
Laser resurfacing is FDA-cleared skin resurfacing procedure in which lasers are used to improve the condition of the skin. Two types of lasers are used to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles on the face; an ablative laser that removes thin layers of skin and a nonablative laser that stimulates collagen production. Nonablative lasers are less effective than ablative ones but they are less invasive and recovery time is short. After the procedure people experience temporary redness, itching and swelling.
Dr. Saman is an European qualified and certified Otolaryngologist, Head and Neck Surgeon (Rhinoplasty Surgeries) in Oslo, Norway and Tehran, Iran. Also, he is the Founder of the EAAMS ( European Academy for Aesthetic Medicine & Surgery ), ANTI AGE ACADEMY and KFS clinic (competence center for specialist health services) in Oslo, Norway. Rhinoplasty is one… […]
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